Friday, September 20, 2019

Codes :: essays research papers

CALIFORNIA CODES HEALTH AND SAFETY CODE 13113.8. (a) On and after January 1, 1986, every single-family dwelling and factory-built housing, as defined in Section 19971, which is sold shall have an operable smoke detector. The detector shall be approved and listed by the State Fire Marshal and installed in accordance with the State Fire Marshal's regulations. Unless prohibited by local rules, regulations, or ordinances, a battery-operated smoke detector shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of this section. (b) On and after January 1, 1986, the transferor of any real property containing a single-family dwelling, as described in subdivision (a), whether the transfer is made by sale, exchange, or real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985 of the Civil Code, shall deliver to the transferee a written statement indicating that the transferor is in compliance with this section. The disclosure statement shall be either included in the receipt for deposit in a real estate transaction, an addendum attached thereto , or a separate document. (c) The transferor shall deliver the statement referred to in subdivision (b) as soon as practicable before the transfer of title in the case of a sale or exchange, or prior to execution of the contract where the transfer is by a real property sales contract, as defined in Section 2985. For purposes of this subdivision, "delivery" means delivery in person or by mail to the transferee or transferor, or to any person authorized to act for him or her in the transaction, or to additional transferees who have requested delivery from the transferor in writing. Delivery to the spouse of a transferee or transferor shall be deemed delivery to a transferee or transferor, unless the contract states otherwise. (d) This section does not apply to any of the following: (1) Transfers which are required to be preceded by the furnishing to a prospective transferee of a copy of a public report pursuant to Section 11018.1 of the Business and Professions Code. (2) Tra nsfers pursuant to court order, including, but not limited to, transfers ordered by a probate court in the administration of an estate, transfers pursuant to a writ of execution, transfers by a trustee in bankruptcy, transfers by eminent domain, or transfers resulting from a decree for specific performance. (3) Transfers to a mortgagee by a mortgagor in default, transfers to a beneficiary of a deed of trust by a

Thursday, September 19, 2019

resolving coworkers conflicts :: essays research papers

Dear Sakiko and Edmundo,   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After reviewing both of your letters, I can definitely see that you guys do not get along. You both gave me your opinions of each other and I can see that you both have different views of each other. Hopefully, as your Editor in Chief, I can resolve your differences. Even though the two of you may not be on the same page, you really need to try and give each other respect. Although you guys aren’t friends, you are coworkers and you both see each other eight hours a day, five days a week. Once you show some respect, the lines of communication will open and disagreements will be reduced. Don't run away and hide from the problems. Confront it head on. You will never solve anything if you don't speak. Now is not the time to be selfish; don't just think of yourself. As your Editor in Chief, I think we should pick a quiet, neutral location such as the company boardroom to sit down and discuss these problems. I will personally make sure that the both of you have an understanding of what the other is feeling at the end of the meeting. First, we will try to find out what exactly makes you both upset, angry or hurt. I think there may be more to the story than meets the eye. I want to get all of the issues out on the table, that way we can try and solve it. When one of you tells your side of the story, I want the other to listen carefully to what your partner is saying and don't jump to conclusions or try to argue his or her point. I want both of you to speak your mind before you dispute it (in a calm manner). Try to step back for a moment. Put yourself in each other’s shoes. How would you feel if you were in his/her position? When you do this, his/her perspective may not seem so farfetched. Finally, come to a truce.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Alcohol and Drinking - Alcoholism as a Disease Essay -- Exploratory Es

Alcoholism as a Disease   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Unfortunately, alcohol brings on the risk of many diseases. "Recent evidence indicates that a wide variety of diseased conditions are brought about by a substance that coats the body's red cells, causing them to adhere to one another in clumps. These clumps, sometimes called 'sludge,' can be created by the ingestion of alcohol"(Burgess,p.130). Alcohol has a disastrous affect on all of the body's organs, the main one being the brain. "At death, the brain of the dependent drinker or alcoholic invariably will reveal enormous numbers of small areas of atrophy in which brain cells have been destroyed"(Burgess,p.131). The brain begins to shrink when under the influence of alcohol. This means that the space that a brain cell took up is now gone because the cell has been destroyed. "In extreme cases most of what is left [of the brain] may be nothing but connective and structural tissue. The neurons themselves, the cells that do the work of the brain, have been destroyed"(Bur gess,p.132). If drinkers, casual or heavy, knew more about alcohol and the effects this drug has on the brain, the number of drinkers would probably drop to a very low amount of people. Unfortunately, this type of material is not made available to many people unless people got suddenly interested to look up the effects alcohol has on the body. There is another type of disease people do not know about called the D.T.'s. This disease is that of body convulsions. This disease is commonly mistaken as being epilepsy, but it is caused by alcohol. It is caused by people trying to quit drinking. The body is suddenly taken off a sedative and is having withdrawals. The withdrawals are convulsions which also kills brain cells. "Depende... ...t also all of the innocent people that are involved. With so many scary things that can happen to the body, why enhance death when a person ca try to prevent it?    Works Cited: Burgess, Louise Bailey. "Alcohol and your health" 1973. Denzin, Norman K. The Recovering Alcoholic. New York: Sage Publications, 1987.    Works Consutled: Berger, Gilda.   Alcoholism and the family.  Ã‚   New York:   Franking Watts, 1993. Graeber, Laurel.   Are you Dying for a Drink?:   Teenagers and Alcohol Abuse.   Ã‚  Ã‚   NewYork: Julian Messner, 1992. Kowalski, Kathiann.   "The Dangers of Alcohol."   Current Health   2 February 1998: 6-7. CD-ROM. Marlatt, Alan G.   "Alcoholism: Disease or Addiction?"   Professional Counselor October 1996: 104. Schulte, Brigid.   "How to Deal with a Family Alcoholic." Knight-Ridder Newspaper 23 December 1997.   CD-ROM.   

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Organisational Culture Change in British Airways

It is also one of the world's longest established airlines†¦ British Airways disposes of a well-established International reputation, it is therefore pertinent to analyses the company's process to cultural changes. Similarly to other airlines companies. It has suffered from the contemporary economical recession and had to face the crisis. In order to respond to the latter, the company used organizational culture change. Furthermore, it is important to look at the concept of organizational culture in order to acquire a better understanding of the situation.According to Jacques (1952) â€Å"The culture of the factory is its customary and traditional way of hinging and doing things, which is shared to a greater or lesser degree by all Its members, and which new members must learn, and at least partially accept, In order to be accepted Into service In the firm. Culture In this sense covers a wide range of behavior†¦ † In other words, the concept of cultural organization possesses a strong historical background.Jacques (1952) compares it to an educational process, which indoctrinates all the members of a company. Standardizing these third parties' behavior and way of thinking. Terms of reference To analyses the type of culture existing within British Airways * To examine the reputation of culture within British Airways * To determine if there is or not a necessity for cultural change within British Airways * To assist British Airways in their transitions from one culture to another if a culture change is required.Literature survey I en alma AT tans research report Is to analyses Brattles Airways' process AT cultural perpetuation and to determine British Airways needs to change its culture. Several theories have been developed in order to explain the cultural procedure. The perpetuation of the culture According to Andrew Brown (1998, p. 55) there a 3 phases to the transition of the culture in an organization: Predilection: This phase takes place befo re the company hires the being. The party effectuates research about the company.Following the researches they choose (or not) to apply to become part of the organization. * Solicitation: During this stage, new recruits learn more about the culture of the organization, the beliefs, the norms, the values, * Solicitation is a vague procedure that leads to incorporation or a rejection of the recruit. * Incorporation/re]section: This phase is conclusive; the recruit is either inserted or excluded from the enterprise. Due to its 90 years of history, British airways dispose of a complex solicitation reoccurred that elaborates the adaptation of the new recruits.The occurrence of culture change Greet Hefted and Cert. Jan Hefted (2005, p. 312) stated that before concluding if there is or not an obligation for culture change, it is important to take into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of the present culture, to define if the present culture can be long-lasting; If the leaders want to establish a new culture and if it is possible to install a new culture in the organization. It is also essential to estimate reliably the costs that a new culture would generate as well as the benefits it will provide to the company, etc.These questions must inevitably be answered to intend to change the culture. According to Scheme (2003, p. 294) the mechanism of change depends on the stage of the organization's development. There are 2 central procedures of development: * General Evolution: general evolution implies a development of the entire company in general. * Specific Evolution: Specific evolution concerns the development of defined sectors of the company. Success in organizational culture transition Brown (1998, p. 46) explains that a culture transition is considered successful if it solves the dilemmas generated by the crisis the organization is facing. In the other case, if the new culture does not engender honorable results, it will lead to a rejection of the rec ent culture. Culture and leadership Scheme (2003, p. 291) stated that in organizations, leaders create culture. Scheme also mare Tanat ten culture proceeds Trot tenure sources: D Ana values AT the creator of the company II. The experience of the employees Ill. The new beliefs and values of the new employees and leaders On the word of Capon (2000, p. 24) the culture of an organization is the result of a blend of several external cultures brought by each employee, which makes every organizational culture unique. Scheme and Capon consider that the organizational culture is internal and external . According to Needle (1988, p. 77) the leader's role in the cultural transition is indispensable. The leader guides the firm and the employees through the crisis, the changing processes, etc. Hefted & Jan Hefted (2005, p. 311) developed Professor Bernhard white's theory.The professor stated that successful organizational culture transition is the result of a coalition between the Monochromatic (the leader) and the facilitator (the expert). Culture change at British Airways British airways previous culture transition (in 1987) was based on Linen's Unfreezing, change, and refreezing† theory as Brown (1998 p. 140) explains: Unfreezing: The unfreezing process is the stage during which the company realizes that there is a need for change. It is a stage of preparation. * Change: stage during which the changes occur.This stage is uncertain, the company is not aware of the consequences these changes can generate in the future. * Refreezing: Stage of stabilization, the organization focuses on maintaining stability. The changes become part of the culture. Methodology This report is based on several sources of information: Notably, British Airways official website: www. Brainwashes. Co. UK. The website is formal, and contains accurate information. Although, its content cannot be considered as objective due to the fact that it has been created by the company.Thus, intends that the information displayed are the ones British Airways chose to diffuse. The B. A annual report also disposes of information but there is still a possible subjectivity on the reports' data. Southampton Solvent Library database contains many articles and studies on BAA . Multiple newspapers such as The Guardian and The Daily Mail dispose of numerous articles on the topic. Culture Change: The information about culture change were found in the multiple books named in the Reference section.Results Linen's â€Å"Unfreezing- Change- Refreezing† Theory: Kurt Lenin considered that organizational change occurs through 3 phases: 1 1 en entrepreneur: Awareness appears,ten leaders take conscience AT ten excellent problem. There are two categories of unfreezing rites: The rites of questioning and destruction 0 which requires to present evidences that employees or system do not function appropriately. This rites sometimes demands the intervention of external consultant due to the fact that their opinion about the individuals or the company will be more objective.The rites of rationalization and legitimating 0 the individuals concerned by the changes must explain why they are essential to the company. Training and education programs are vital to the Unfreezing process. 2. The change: Is the stage where change appears. There are two types in this phase: The rites of degradation and conflict 0 during these rites, the staff unable or unwilling to recognize and approve the need for change will be replaced by more cooperative personnel. The rites of passage and enhancement 0 these rites are employed to confront the opposition to change.Several methods such as promotions, training programs and new Job titles are applied. The innovations become more understandable to the employees, during this period of transition. 3. The refreezing: Is the final stage of Linen's theory. The employees attempt to dissolve instability, they are now accustomed to the changes, there is no requir ement for external consultancies, The refreezing phase contains only one type of rites, The rites of integration and conflict reduction these rites create conformity in the organization, minimize the misunderstandings between the personnel and the departments.Also these rites stabilize the changing process. To illustrate Linen's theory, an analysis of British Airways previous cultural change is going to be examined. Linen's theory applied within British Airways, Brown (1998, p. 144) In the 1980, under the Thatcher's government, British Airways metamorphosed from a governmental possession too private ownership. According to various external opinions, this conversion required a cultural change. The cultural change materialized through Linen's â€Å"Unfreezing-change-Refreezing† theory.Unfreezing awhile the unfreezing process, three major stages were defined. First of all, the decrease of the number of response, 22 000 employees were dismissed. Second of all, new leaders were se lected, Loran Klan as cameraman Ana Colon Marshall as c o Humanly, ten training program â€Å"Putting people first† was specially created for the personnel in direct contact with the costumers to ameliorate the quality of their service. Change DOT assist this phase, many training programs as â€Å"Managing People First† and â€Å"Leading The Service business† were utilized in British Airways† special training centre.Personal feedbacks were available to each employee, in order to improve their performances. Defective systems were withdrawn. Refreezing 0 This stage consists in fixing the changes. The changes are part of the culture, new uniforms are utilized, airplanes are ameliorated. To conclude, this transition was successful but it has not been effortless. During the early stage, several employees were not convinced by the changes. Professor Bernhard White's theory This theory states that the leader and the expert have the capacity to make a transition s uccessful if they cooperate.Discussion The results show that British Airways have a constant need to modify the culture due to the fact that the organization is continually confronting a crisis or a major tutorial change. In effect, British Airways was first a government property, in 1987, the government decided to privative British Airways. The company was then obliged to change its culture in order to facilitate the ownership transition. External advisers were required, new leaders were designated; personnel programs to train employees were created, the workforce was decreased to minimize the expenses of the company.Economical crisis: The economic recession originated in the United States of America has also reached Europe and has weakened several European countries and companies. British Airways was certainly no exception. British Airways as well as many other British enterprises have been severely affected by the financial crisis. The company lost an important amount capital and had to dismiss several employees. Willie Walsh, British Airways' chief executive, stated: â€Å"The airline industry is enduring the toughest times in its history and we expect more pain before things improve.We are taking the right short-term action to survive the downturn. We will not let this crisis compromise our long-term goal-to create a world-leading global premium airline with a reputation for being the very best at meeting its customers' needs. † (British Airways 2008/2009 annual report and accounts)† The company is aware of the difficulty they are confronted to. British Airways exposes volition to overcome these difficulties. The company demonstrates an optimistic blew. Brattles Already NAS developed awareness towards the hardship the financial crisis has generated.By admitting their issues, British Airways has crossed the first step of the Linen's theory. From that moment the company will have to make an important decision that will have a significant influe nce on its future and on its employees. The enterprise will have to decide whether or not there is a need to alter its organizational culture. Environmental crisis: British airways as well as many other airlines companies had to face the environmental crisis due to the consciousness raising about the climate change.In effect, human beings are aware that they are maltreating the planet, they have expressed they volition to minimize gas emissions. Knowing that the airline industry is by far the most pollutant, numerous of clients and potential clients minimized their travels by plane. To face this type of crisis, British airways will have to invest funds in the research of new technologies in order to later replace fuel by environmental friendly combustible. In April 2010, British airways as well as every other airline company had to face a major environmental issue.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Psychodynamic approach Essay

P1 – Explain the principle psychological perspectives. M1 – Assess different psychological approaches to study. Sigmund Freud developed an approach which was the first psychological approach that elucidated behaviour. Freud discovered the psychoanalysis, which is a technique for curing mental illness and also a theory which explains human behaviour. Psychoanalysis is recognised as the talking cure. Normally, Freud would inspire his patients to talk freely (on his famous couch) concerning their symptoms and to explain precisely what was on their mind. He also states ‘The iceberg which has 3 levels known as the conscious mind, preconscious and unconscious mind. Freud compared himself to an archaeologist digging away layers of the human mind, and found three discrete parts of the mind. He was the earliest philosophers to get public awareness the concept that we are not conscious of all our features all the time. He proposed that what we are conscious of is represented on our conscious mind but that most of our memories, feelings and mind he named as ‘unconscious’. We don’t have access to the contents of our unconscious, but they occasionally ‘leak out’ in dreams and slips of the tongue. Freud’s first elucidated behaviour by his iceberg analogy. He suggested that the conscious mind was like the tip of an iceberg –merely a small part being accessible to consciousness. Part of the unconscious that we can easily access he named it the preconscious. This can be used in health and social care as health carers can identify what is happening in the client’s conscious mind and identify any faults there might be such as depression and schizophrenia and possibly phobias. Sigmund Freud proposed that we have inborn drives that stimulates our conducts in the form of the mind. These are known as the ego, superego and the id. The id occurs at birth and is the base of our unconscious inclination. It works on the gratification concept to get instant pleasure, so it prevents pain and therefore it is very egocentric. The id is the origin of a supernatural known as Libido. The superego  develops throughout the age of five years and entails principles and values. It is the child’s ego and moral sense which constructs the paragon of what the child wishes to be. Our ego is developed throughout our childhood and it enables the child to learn that getting instant gratification is not always feasible and that a lot of the time pain cannot be prevented The ego operates on the actuality principle because it decides what actions are most convenient and what to avoid from the id. It also tries to balance the requirements of the id and superego with the actualit y of life so we can do what normal individuals do by using the defence mechanisms. Depending on Sigmund our defence mechanisms are used in order to manage unconscious dispute amongst ego, superego and id. These disputes might be unconscious or conscious and the defence mechanisms work in an unconscious manner to wards of any disagreeable feelings and make things better for the person. There are four key defence systems that are used by the ego. An example is displacement. Displacement is when people’s emotional state towards the actual goal cannot be expressed and where accepting faults cause concern and worry that causes moods to be interchanged on to other objects. For instance an individual blaming their parents for their performance as of them not raising them properly instead of blaming their self. Denial is another ego defence mechanism that is where someone cannot accept a specific truth. Individuals might object to believe occurrence or acknowledge emotions as of worry and concern, thus specific awareness is not dealt with. For instance, someone who is unwell might reject to believe this. Repression†¯is another well-known defence mechanism. Repression acts to keep information out of†¯conscious†¯recognition. Though, these memories don’t just vanish; they endure to impact our behaviour. For example, a person who has repressed memories of abuse suffered as a child might later have troubles making relationships. The final ego defence mechanism is regression. This is where people act out behaviours from the†¯stage of psychosexual development†¯in which they are fixated. For instance, someone fixated at an earlier developmental stage may cry or sulk as of hearing dissatisfying news upon. Behaviours related to regression can differ significantly depending  upon which stage the individual is fixated at. Someone fixated at the†¯oral stage†¯may start eating or smoking immoderately or may become verbally violent. A fixation at the†¯anal stage†¯might result in immoderate tidiness or messiness. Sigmund also developed the psychosexual stages of development. He supposed that character is chiefly started throughout the age of five years because early experiences play a great role in the development of character and endure to impact behaviour in the future. He believed that our character develop in stages in which pleasure-seeking drives of the id commence to focus on erogenous places. The driving power behind our performance was elucidated by psychosexual energy known as the libido. Through completing the stages successfully the person can develop a good character. Though, if the stages are not completed appropriately and specific matters at the stage are not sorted out. Then, it results in fixation. Fixation is where there is a continuous focus on an earlier psychosexual stage as of unsorted dispute. The person will continue to be stuck at this stage if the dispute is not resolved. There are five stages to the psychosexual that Freud suggested. The first stage is the oral stage, at this stage the child is 0-1 years of age and the chief source of libido is the mouth. Here the child will relish consuming food along with placing objects into their mouth. The essential impact at this stage is the mother because the child will link the mother and food with love. If they are neglected from food or are fed involuntarily then it may well cause matters in the future. If a child is weaning from liquid to solid foods they need to learn to be patient for food to be cooked instead of having food instantly. The second stage is the anal stage. At this stage the child is one to three years of age and the child will feel a sense of pleasure in the anus. The child will feel gratification from expelling or holding in excrement. The essential effect at this stage is being taught on how to use the toilet. The child will learn when and where they are intended to release excrement which will prevent fixation. Added to that, the child  would be capable to sway their parents by their bowel movements, because their parent’s devotion and approbation depends on whether or not they release excrement when they ask to be able to go to the toilet. Though, being too stern on the child being permitted to toilet training could possibly lead to fixation, also because the child might develop to become anal impetuous. The third stage is the phallic stage where the child is three to five years of age. The key source of libido here is the child’s penis or vagina and pleasure is obtained from masturbation. At this stage the child will encounter Electra complex and associate with their mother if they are female, whereas if the child is a male they will encounter Oedipus complex where he will associate with his father. Through being affected by this information positively, the superego is developed and they include the morals of the self-same sex parent along with association of gender and sex duties. If they do not associate with the self-same sex parent then they will become fixated at this level and this could possibly lead to homosexuality. The fourth stage is the latency period. At this period the child is six years of age. The latent period is a time of investigation in which the sexual drive is still present, but it is directed into other areas like intellectual pursuits and social interactions. They have reached puberty and the key source of gratification is playing with peers of both sexes. During this stage the child is active with playing with their peers that not much befalls in terms of sexuality. If fixation befalls here the child will not feel content with members of the incompatible sex because they grow up and will find it to build heterosexual relationships. This stage is essential in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence. The final stage is the genital stage which arises from puberty and the key source of libido/gratification here is having sexual intercourse with others. At this stage the persons interests and feelings towards others benefit will develop and they try to create a balance among their discrete lifestyles. If fixation has arose throughout any other stage, it will become  obvious at this psychosexual stage. Though, a different concept was suggested by Erik Erikson which approved with Freud’s theory to a degree. This was Erik Erikson’s psychosocial stages of development. He thought like Freud that everyone grows in stages, however these stages endure during our life and rather than having a greater focus on the lust for indulgence we must deem our need to be tolerated also. Erikson suggested eight psychosocial stages of development. Stage one is where the child is aged from zero to one years of age and the focal point is how the infant is raised. If they are raised in the right way, then they will form trust, but if the infant isn’t raised in the right way, then the infant will begin to not trust parents/guardians and their surroundings. Stage two is where the child is aged from one to three years of age and the focal point is being permitted to freedom. If this is done appropriately the child will develop some sort of autonomy. If they are continuously criticised the child will interrogate their own aptitude. Stage three is where the child is three to six years of age and begin to interact with the everyone. If the child is persuaded to endeavour different things and develop different skills and qualities, it will enable them to develop capabilities and self-assurance. However, if the child is continuously criticised and made culpable, then it will cause low confidence. Stage four is where the child is six to twelve years of age and focuses on the knowledge of how things operate. If the child begins to accomplish practical jobs they will form some kind of hard work however, if they are being pressured on specific tasks that they cannot accomplish will cause subservient and make them feel incapable. Stage five is where the person is twelve to eighteen years of age and the main focus at this stage is developing some sort of individuality by experimentation. Through being permitted to do the experiment, the child could then possibly develop a secure identity. However, not experimenting means they do not create a secure identity and causes misperception and negative identity. Stage six is where the person is aged eighteen to forty years of age and will focus on discovering new relationships to lead to long term commitments with each other. By creating these secure and committed relationships the sense of safety and be associated to devotion leads to a sense of love. Though,  through ignoring closeness and having phobia of commitment can cause the person to isolate them-selves and this little amount of love and could cause depression. Stage seven is where the person is aged forty to sixty five and the main focus is creating a career and having a family. Through having a career and giving back to society by parenting children and participating in community services, the person receives a sense of love and care. However, not getting participating with society could possibly cause a feeling of wasting life and being unfruitful. Stage eight is the final stage and here the person is over the age f sixty five. The person’s focal point at this stage is working less actively and intensely and think about their accomplishments during the course of their life. Through, performing this successfully, the person develops the merit of understanding that enables them to look back on their life with a feeling of accomplishment. This way the person is then able to can accept passing deprived of being afraid. Though, if the person has feelings of culpability about their life or has an insufficient achievement which will cause feelings of lead to feelings of desolation and frequently depression and as a result phobia of death. A benefit of the psychodynamic approach is that it is developed in stages. These stages make it easier to examine and give back up due to the fact that the stages are simple and easy to follow and acknowledge, therefore, making it easier to gather support for. On top of this, the stages developed by Erikson have more logic than Freud’s psychosexual stages because they make sense and are easy to acknowledge. This means that it can be easily implemented in health and social care practises. For instance in the counselling and treatment centre the health and social care workers are then able to use their insight of the eight stages of Erikson’s concept to detect why the person is feeling dejected has insufficient autonomy and tried to give most appropriate remedy. Though, some issues can be discovered with the psychodynamic approach. A problem is that the approach doesn’t use scientific methodology which means that it is based on opinions. This makes it hard to depend on the results because they are not a dependable source. This insufficient facts means the  approach is can be proven false. On top of this, a lot of the backing research originates from case studies. Though, these enable us to get in detailed information about one person. They might not be the most convenient when it comes to application to other people because the results can’t be generalised to the overall populace. A well-known case study that has been implement by Freud was the case of Little Hans, which was used as assistance for his psychodynamic approach. Little Hans had a fear of horses because he thought that they would hurt him or cause chaos. Little Han’s dad after being consulted by Freud, interpreted his fear through saying that the horses looked like his dad and that the phobia of being bitten signifies the fact that Little Hans was encountering the Oedipus complex and had a phobia of being castrated by his dad as of his feelings about his mum Little Han’s father and played a role his analyst and interpreted his sexual desires and associated these back to the Oedipus complex. Though, there are numerous factors to the Little Han’s case study that have been neglected. For instance, Little Han’s was more petrified of his mum because she threatened to cut off his penis because he was persistently fiddling with it. Also, after Freud spent some time with Little Han’s his parents split up. This means that Little Han’s phobia might be as of the reason that his parents ended their marriage and not be as of Oedipus complex. On top of this, his mum was also spiteful to her baby daughter, therefore it can possibly be that the ‘row’ he was scared of was the crying of his baby sister. Additionally, Freud analyse Little Han’s fear him-self. It was his dad who used Freud’s instructions in order to cure Little Han’s phobia. This means that, as his dad is not an expert analyst, he didn’t get the ideal remedy and the interpretations made might have possible been wrong, and so leading to inadequate remedies . This case study indicates that there are numerous different factors that Freud didn’t deem which could have been the motive of Little Han’s’ phobia. His phobia might have been better elucidated through operant conditioning. Little Han’s had witnessed a falling horse before, therefore, it might be that he related his fear at that instant with the falling horse and therefore develop the phobia.   However, Freud was capable to gather an adequate amount of data about Little Han’s which helped him in the explanation of his fear. However, his case studies are subject to partiality as most of his case studies focused on middle-class Victorian female, however some of his cases focused on males. This indicates that his results are sex bias and might not be relevant to the opposite sex. Also, his explanation are opinion based which means that they might vary to another psychoanalyst’s explanation. This could possible lead to issues to the welfare of the person who will not get remedies as of dissimilar information they are getting. Another problem with the psychodynamic approach is that the therapies people get entails time and dedication. This means that the client needs to be dedicated in the remedy in order for them to recover. Another therapy like medicine might possibly be quicker, however psychoanalysis has a more long term effect on the person. Where remedies can lead to deterioration, psychoanalysis will alter the client’s perception and lead to long term modifications. This is beneficial for the patient because at the therapy and counselling centre, they will be aware that the dedication and time will be useful, also will identify long term modification after some time.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

First Breath Last Breath by Antler Analysis Essay

â€Å"First Breath Last Breath† is a poem written by Antler. The central theme of this poem is the beginning and the end of life. Antler manages to translate through words the cycle of life, using two characters the baby boy and the mother. The characters are connected in life through a strong relationship. The cycle is presented by the event of birth of a child and the death of the mother who gave him life. This poem is also about love, the love between a mother and her â€Å"baby boy†. The title of the poem â€Å"First Breath Last Breath† is composed of two parts. Breath† by definition it means the air inhaled and exhaled in respiration but it also means life, spirit or vitality. First part is â€Å"First Breath† means the beginning (â€Å"first†) of life (â€Å"breath†) and second part â€Å"Last Breath† means the end (â€Å"last†) of life (â€Å"breath†). The first part is also present in the first stanza in the ninth line â€Å"his first breath on Earth† emphasizing the topic of the first stanza – the beginning. The second part is present as well in the poem, in the second stanza, ninth line â€Å"exhales her last breath† emphasizing the second part of the title and also the topic of the second stanza – the end. An important aspect is the structure of the poem. It is composed of two stanzas, each stanza containing one sentence that is broken up at various intervals. Both stanzas have each ten lines. The intervals that the sentences are broken differ from line to line, the longest line being 8 syllables and the shortest being 3 syllables. This structure gives the author flexibility, writing this poem like he is writing a story. He is breaking up the sentence into various intervals in order to create â€Å"musicality† among the last words of each line. We could say that a summary of the poem can be composed of the first line and the last two lines of each stanza: â€Å"When a baby boy is born/†¦/his first breath on Earth/the Mother breathes it. † and â€Å"And when the Mother dies,/†¦/exhales her last breath,/her son inhales it. † The voice in this poem is the poet’s voice. He is invoking a sad, melancholic tone emphasized by the words â€Å"dies†, â€Å"last breath†, â€Å"grew up†. It is possible for the poet himself to transpose with the baby boy, showing his gratitude and love for his mother. It is just a supposition to say this because the verbs and pronouns are all used at the third person: â€Å"he†, â€Å"it†, â€Å"breathes†, â€Å"dies† etc. The third person mode along with the fact that there are no particular names given to the personages (â€Å"baby†, â€Å"midwife†, â€Å"Mother†) demonstrates that this poem is not about a particular story it is about every one of us. The place where all the events in this poem happen is unknown. The only word that answers the question: â€Å"Where? † is â€Å"on Earth† used in the first stanza ninth line. Although it answers the question â€Å"Where? the meaning of the words is to emphasize the importance of baby’s first breath. Putting into the equation the fact that the poem was written in 21st century and also the fact that the majority of events of this kind happen in a hospital, we can suppose that that is the location. One of the most important characteristic of this poem is antithetic view of the first and second stanza. In the first stanza it is about life, â€Å"baby boy is born†, â€Å"first breath† in comparison with the second stanza where it is about death, â€Å"Mother dies†, â€Å"last breath†. The poet creates a perfect antithetical symmetry using opposite words in the same location. For example: â€Å"When a baby boy is born† (location: first stanza, first line ) in comparison with â€Å"And when the Mother dies† (location: second stanza, first line), â€Å"his first breath on Earth† (location: first stanza, ninth line) in comparison with â€Å"exhales her last breath† (location: second stanza, ninth line). Another particularity of this poem is the transposition between the mother and the son used in the last line of first and second stanza: â€Å"the Mother breathes it† transposed into â€Å"her son inhales it†. In the first line of the first stanza we can identify an image of a baby boy born containing two monosyllable words â€Å"boy† and â€Å"born† that elongate the line with the help of the literary device alliteration: â€Å"baby boy born†. The first line also expresses the time when the next events will happen with the help of the adverb â€Å"when† identified at the beginning of the line. In the second line through enjambment technique â€Å"the story† it is continued with the presentation of an episodic personage, â€Å"the midwife† – the woman skilled in aiding the delivery of babies. As we continue with the third, fourth and fifth line the first important thing happens: the boy takes his first breath. Here we encounter the conjugation of the pronoun â€Å"he† – â€Å"he†, â€Å"his†, â€Å"him†. In the third line we encounter another alliteration â€Å"holds him†. The coma at the end of the fifth line delimitates the first event: the boy takes his first breath – from the second event: â€Å"the Mother breathes it†. It also expresses a short pause in speech. The fifth line is end stopped. The words â€Å"first breath† are also repeated in the ninth line in order to emphasize the importance of these words. First breath can also be translated into the beginning of life. If the first four verses were imagistic the fifth verse it is more auditory – the sound of breath. The second event starts with the movement of the child near his mother. This second event also uses the technique of enjambment and it is in symmetry with the first event having five lines as well. In the seventh line the author introduces the word mother with a capital M and using â€Å"the† an indefinite article. He uses this technique in order to express the connection between the Mother and her child and in order to particularize her as an important person in this poem. In the sixth and the seventh line the author shows how small the baby is by placing him near â€Å"the Mother’s face†. In the last line of the stanza the poet is using a figure of speech â€Å"the Mother breathes it† to show the connection that the baby just born made with his mother, to show the love between the mother and her child and to show how close the mother was to the baby. The second stanza starts with the conjunction â€Å"and† in order for the poet to emphasize the continuation of the story, to show what happens after, what is the next episode after the birth of the child. Through symmetry technique he again expresses the time when the events are occurring using the adverb â€Å"when†, but this time it happens â€Å"when the Mother dies†. The coma at the end of this line shows that there will be a short explanation, and also a short pause in speech. In the second line the poet shows us how much time has passed indicating that the â€Å"baby boy† from the first stanza is now a â€Å"middle-aged son†. The third verse expresses the admiration of the baby boy who grew up. The hyphen used at the end of this verse indicate a possible different continuation, indicate a longer pause where the reader can think about what the boy has become. The answer of the third line is given in the fourth line showing the admiration and love of the child for his mother: â€Å"†¦ grew up to be –/by her side,†. Through parallelism technique the author shows in the fifth line how the son placed his head next to his mother’s head: â€Å"his head next to her head†. Here are also present two alliterations: â€Å"his head†, â€Å"her head†. The hyphen at the end of the line indicates a longer pause. In the sixth line he again uses parallelism technique to show how close and how alike the mother and the son are: â€Å"follows her†¦with his†¦Ã¢â‚¬ . In the seventh and eighth line the author describes in a slower tone how the mother dies. In the last line of the second stanza the poet is using a figure of speech â€Å"her son inhales it† to express that the connection is never lost between the son and his mother. The poem is framed around the boy, because he is the one whom at the beginning of his life he is near his mother (â€Å"place him over/the Mother’s face†), during all his life he stands by his mother (â€Å"the baby grew up to be–/by her side†) and at the end of his mother’s life he is still near her (â€Å"And when the other dies/†¦/his head next to her head—â€Å"). When the baby boy takes his first breath it represents new life/vitality . The fact that the son â€Å"inhales† â€Å"her last breath† can have one other signification. By the definition breath means also spirit, and the son might inhale her spirit to always be with her, to always remember her. Both the mother and the son can be seen as a single organism, always close to each other, unity being powerfully emphasized in the words â€Å"follows her breathing with his breath†.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Lamoiyan Corporation: Building the Filipinos Essay

Most corporations in the Philippines these days are multinational companies. Those companies, though operating here in the Philippines, are owned by foreigners and not by Filipinos. This fact make us Filipinos purchase products that rather than helping our fellow Filipinos will more likely help those foreigners that are just using the some Philippines. Thanks to Filipino corporations that boom because of perseverance and patriotism, they serve as hope for us, Filipinos because of what they do, not just for their own businesses, but also, for the Filipino people. One of those corporations is the Lamoiyan Corporation. The Lamoiyan Corporation The Lamoiyan Corporation did not start as a toothpaste manufacturer, rather as a supplier of aluminum collapsible toothpaste tubes to toothpaste manufacturers. In 1970s, Dr. Pedro? s Aluminum Containers, Inc. enjoyed profit growth due to the increasing demand from the country? s leading toothpaste manufacturers, ColgatePalmolive, Procter and Gamble and Philippine Refining Company (PRC) now Unilever. However, in 1985, these companies began using laminated tubes and left Dr. Pedro? s Aluminum Containers, Inc. but instead of closing his factory, throwing into waste the entire leftover toothpaste container and having 200 people employed in his company go unemployed, he decided to make his own toothpaste and place it in his aluminum containers. Two years later, he reopened his factory as Lamoiyan Corporation, now known as the manufacturer of toothpaste brands? Hapee and Kutitap. The big toothpaste makers controlled 99% market before Dr. Pedro entered it in 1987. Today, the figure dropped down to 65%. The first of Dr. Pedro? s strategies was to to target the multi-nationals’ Achilles? heel: price. While Dr. Pedro knew that he could not compete in areas such as promotion and distribution, his decision to cut price by 50% won an immediate response from consumers. However, when Colgate followed suit with a 20% price cut, Dr. Pedro turned to market diversification. Among other things, he developed multi-flavored toothpaste for children. It took Colgate three years to respond, but by that time, Lamoiyan had already successfully captured the new market. Moreover, Dr. Pedro targeted specialized markets, by diversifying his product line to include Hapee Kiddie Toothgels, Dazz Dishwashing Paste and Dazz AllPurpose Kitchen Cleaner, Fresher feminine wash and Gumtect, a special gum-formula toothpaste, which larger companies did not find profitable. Lamoiyan Corporation has been recognized as the Most Outstanding Toothpaste Manufacturer by the Consumer’s Union of the Philippines for seven years. The company was also recognized by the Personnel Management Association of the Philippines (PMAP) as having the Most Outstanding Program for Equal Employment. Natural Capitalism Natural capital refers to the resources and services provided by nature. They are of large economic value – more so than the gross world product. Natural capitalism is a system of four interlinking principles, where business and environmental interests overlap, and in which businesses can better satisfy their customers’ needs, increase profits and help solve environmental problems all at the same time. Taking care of the environment is a priority of Lamoiyan Corporation. With the future generation of kids in mind, Lamoiyan Corporation makes sure that they are doing their share in protecting the environment by putting in place some measures that will help. Lamoiyan Corporation, in compliance to Republic Act 6969 or the Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990, properly disposes their chemical by-products during the manufacture of their famous Hapee toothpaste and all other products. In this way, it does not damage the environment and human beings. Since water is getting scarce these days, the corporation continues in manufacturing affordable toothpaste but not overusing water resource through its wastewater treatment facility. With its wastewater treatment facility, it recycles water, thus, conserving a voluminous amount of water which is a precious resource. In addition, in terms of energy consumption, the company implements a strict energy-saving policy that involves the proper use of electricity. Their energy consumption includes turning off of unused lights and unplugging and not just turning off of personal computers and other electrical devices. With these, we can say that Lamoiyan Corporation? s business and environmental interests overlap since they don? t want to close their business and they also care for the environment that? s why they comply with every policy mandated by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The corporation also can better satisfy their customer? s needs since they save on electricity and water, therefore, the price of their products will be cheaper and more affordable. They also can increase their profit while saving mother earth. Corporate Social Responsibility In its almost 24 years of success as the first Filipino to ever penetrate the toothpaste market, Lamoiyan Corporation never failed to adhere to its social responsibility. About 30 percent of the employees of Lamoiyan Corporation are hearing-impaired. Sign language is the only means of communication between the hearing-impaired and hearing personnel, so he has also required his managers to learn it. Dr. Pedro does not only employ them but also, helps provide them with free housing, thus, improving their way of life. Since there are still many deaf-mute people outside the company that also need help, Lamoiyan took it upon itself to support three schools and 14 centers that provide basic sign language courses to the hearing-impaired. Upon graduation, some students are sent to college as scholars, while others are hired by the company. For Dr. Pedro, being socially responsible is not only taking care of the hearing impaired, but also taking care of his employees, providing a decent place where they can work safely and taking care of his employees? Physical, intellectual, and spiritual well-being. His company holds regular Bible studies and prayer meetings to help make food for the soul. Their singular corporate motto is â€Å"Making the difference for the Glory of God. † Moreover, Lamoiyan? s products are very affordable for Filipino families belonging to the C, D, and E market, giving them the chance to access dental care and therefore, making their life better. William Ford Jr. , chairman of Ford Motor Co. said, â€Å"Social responsibility is much bigger than supporting worthy causes. It includes anything that impacts people and the quality of their lives. † The social responsibility of Lamoiyan Corporation does impact people and their quality of lives, it? s more than giving people fishes, but teaching them how to fish. Social Justice Social justice is the fair and proper administration of laws conforming to the natural law that all persons, irrespective of ethnic origin, gender, possessions, race, religion, etc. , are to be treated equally and without prejudice. Lamoiyan Corporation did not fail to exercise social justice as it follow laws on labor, etc. One example is its compliance to Section 3 of Article XIII of the 1987 Philippine Constitution which states: â€Å"The State shall afford full protection to labor, local and overseas, organized and unorganized, and promote full employment and equality of employment opportunities for all. † Lamoiyan Corporation promotes equality of employment opportunities for all given that they hire deaf-mute people even if they do not possess the ability to hear and to speak. Another thing, Lamoiyan Corporation complies with every policy mandated by the Department of Environment and natural Resources for the environment protection, therefore, following the law and being fair with other Filipinos since the corporation will not be a cause of calamities that destroy the Filipinos. Lamoiyan Corporation is also fair in giving salaries and benefits to its employees. They also follow the laws stated in the Labor Code of the Philippines. Regarding its treatment to its customers, I could say that Lamoiyan Corporation is fair in pricing their products compared to multi-national companies which have high-priced toothpaste with the almost the same quality as Lamoiyan? s. Filipinos get good quality toothpaste at the right price. Can Business Build Or Destroy The Filipino? Lamoiyan Corporation did very well in practicing Natural Capitalism. It follows every law and regulation mandated by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and does projects other done what the DENR told them to save the planet. People might say that they are just doing these for themselves, for their business not to close, for them to save money on conserving electricity and water, etc. Well, yes, they may be doing it for themselves but let us put in mind the Invisible Hand Theory of Adam Smith. The Invisible Hand Theory of Adam Smith states that an individual will accidentally/unconsciously benefit other individuals by promoting his self interest. Lamoiyan Corporation, by promoting its business and environmental interests, benefit the Filipinos and possible, the whole world. Since they are conserving water which is getting scarce, they are helping the future Filipino people to still have water as a resource. Their energy conservation, moreover, can help lessen global warming, thus providing a better world to the next generations. The toothpaste manufacturer has a very good corporate social responsibility. Since they are employing deaf-mute Filipinos, who are supposedly unemployed because of their disability, the number of unemployed Filipinos is lessened and therefore, reducing poverty, somehow. The company, through its corporate social responsibility, does not merely give their beneficiaries fishes but they teach them how to fish through giving their beneficiaries free education. And after their education, those beneficiaries can stand on their own even without the help of the company. One question that one may ask is what would happen to their deaf-mute employees if the corporation will all of a sudden close and only the Lamoiyan Corporation employs deaf-mute Filipinos. Well, I foresee that the company will stay for the next one hundred years, if not for a lifetime, since their products are affordable and efficient. Especially these days, Filipinos are becoming wiser in choosing the products that they will use since saving money is a must. Regarding social justice, Lamoiyan Corporation recognizes basic human rights like Article VII of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states: All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. Since Lamoiyan Corporation is fair and equal to everyone, even to the deaf-mute people, the deaf-mute people have the opportunity to live as normal people and gain confidence in order to improve themselves and eventually, the Philippines. To sum up, businesses like Lamoiyan Corporation help build the Filipino people through its efforts of promoting its business and environmental interests. First, they provide a better world for the future generations by doing their part in minimizing the effects of global warming. Yes, they cannot totally stop global warming, but doing something is much better than doing nothing. Second, it provides employment to Filipinos, especially to those who are not likely to be employed, and it gives chance to others to be employed in the future by giving them education. Employment generation is a key strategy in reducing poverty. Third, justice prevails in and out of the corporation. They respect the rights of others anywhere. Aristotle said â€Å"It is in justice that the ordering of society is centered. † Lastly, Lamoiyan Corporation is a Filipino Corporation. Filipinos have the reason to buy Filipino products whose quality can be compared with multinational corporations? products and to help their fellow Filipinos and purely, the Filipinos. 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Accessed January 8, 2012. http://www. philstar. com/Article. aspx? articleId=685037&publicationSubCategoryId=7 5 Galarpe, Karen. †How One Filipino Company Practices Corporate Social Responsibility. † Accessed January 8, 2012. http://blogs. inquirer. net/openforbusiness/2009/03/31/how-one-filipino-company.